Compares Cash-ISAs and Stocks-and-Shares-ISAs
For tax-year from April 2016 we can put up to £15,240 per year
into tax-free savings whether Cash-ISA or Stock-and-Shares-ISA or a combination of the two.
With average annual gross earnings around £27,000; the £15,000 limit is more than enough for the ordinary saver.
Cash ISAs are risk-free. From 1st January 2016 the government guarantee reduced to £75,000 per provider.
Between 2010 and 2014 savings were being slightly eroded by inflation.
On 04.08.2016 Bank of England reduced its base rate from 0.5% to 0.25%, a record low.
So Banks/building societies reduced their savings rates and savings are again being eroded by inflation.
£15,000 in a savings account returning 2.0% less than inflation loses £300.00 per year in purchasing value.
Review your accounts occasionally to ensure you continue to receive a competitive rate.
Visit a price comparison website such as comparethemarket for current rates.
From April 2016 savings interest in a regular savings account is paid gross and basic-rate taxpayers can receive interest of up to £1,000/year tax-free:
the new personal savings allowance. £1,000 would be £40,000 at 2.5%. So Cash ISAs are no longer the only tax-free choice.
The Martin Lewis MoneySavingExpert website has good description of savings account options.
Stocks and Shares ISAs - Index Tracker Funds
Stocks-and-Shares-ISAs are NOT risk-free.
FTSE-100 was 6930 at end-December 1999, and had fallen to 3287 in mid-March 2003. It was about 6730 on mid-June and mid-October 2007 and had fallen to 3512 early-March 2009. It was back around 7000 during the first 6 months of 2015 and again during the final months of 2016.
These huge variations make me cautious of equity-based savings, but ignoring equities removes the possibility of higher returns.
The theory is that low returns go with low risk, and higher returns with higher risks; and in the long-term equities will out-perform savings accounts.
Period 1990-1999 was exceptionally good for equities; 2000-2009 was bad for equities, we lost money in real-terms and we would have been better-off investing in Cash-ISAs; period 2010-2016 was better for equities. This is illustrated by the table showing outcomes for £10,000 invested at the start of the period. As with all examples start and end dates matter, 2000-2009 included two stock-market crashes.
Sticking with the UK stock-market reduces currency risks. Using index-tracker funds spreads
risk across many shares. ISAs based on index-tracker funds should have no initial charge (sometimes 5% for other funds) and
annual charges which are lower than those for actively-managed funds.
They can be bought over the web and are easy to understand.
There is research from US universities which says trackers overall, on-average, out-perform actively-managed funds.
Trackers account for only 10% of funds invested each year by retail investors; so not everyone shares these opinions.
Advantages of index-trackers are recognised by Warren Buffett.
This website focuses on FTSE All-Share index-trackers.
Should you have the inclination, time and money, check out the Morningstar website and its OEIC/Unit Trusts, Fund Performance pages.
It is free, topical and reliable but takes a bit of getting used to.
Defined Contribution Pensions
We now own our own pensions. George Osborne's 2014 budget removed many restrictions on pension-pot withdrawls
for people retiring after April 2015.
A year after the reform, most large fund providers are offering a direct-to-consumer flexi-access drawdown product. Whereas before the reform investors with less than £100,000 were not considered suitable for drawdown and had to buy an annuity.
The reform is not going to improve long-term bond yields.
Withdrawls are taxed at your marginal income-tax rate.
Employer contributions and the tax advantages of pensions make them an attractive savings option.
Pension contributions are free of tax but not national-insurance and a 25% tax-free lump-sum
can be taken when the pension is cashed-in.
Pay the tax and buy an ISA is a possible choice for saving earlier in a working lifetime when money locked in a pension may be seen as too inflexible.
Prospect of Lifetime ISA
If you already receive maximum employer pension contribution and you are under 40, George Osborne's 2016 budget
announcing Lifetime ISA's will be of interest.
From April 2017, people 18-to-40 can start an ISA account, investing up to £4,000/year and receiving 25% from government, max £1,000/year, at the end-of-each tax-year. 25% rebate continues up to age 50.
Last updated 11 January 2017.